The structure and function of viruses

  • 54 Pages
  • 2.41 MB
  • 6743 Downloads
  • English
by
E. Arnold , London
Vir
StatementRobert W. Horne.
SeriesInstitute of Biology"s studies in biology ;, no. 95
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQR360 .H644
The Physical Object
Pagination54 p. :
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL4477793M
ISBN 100713127058, 0713127066
LC Control Number79305569

The shape of the capsid serves as one basis for classification of viruses. The capsid of the virus shown in Figure below is icosahedral. Virally coded proteins will self-assemble to form a capsid. Some viruses have an envelope of phospholipids and proteins.

Details The structure and function of viruses FB2

The envelope is made from portions of the host’s cell membrane. It surrounds the capsid and helps protect the virus from the. Viruses contain only a few elements by which they can be classified: the viral genome, the type of capsid, and the envelope structure for the enveloped viruses.

All of these elements have been used in the past for viral classification (Table and Figure ). Viral genomes may vary in the type of genetic material (DNA or RNA) and its. Complementary Strategies to Study Virus Structure and Function, Volumethe latest release in the Advances in Virus Research series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on X-ray structures from crystals of viral proteins grown in cellula, NMR and SAXS to study protein dynamics and natively disordered viral proteins, Mass spectrometry to study virus particle assembly, Atomic force microscopy to study virus particles Price: $ Introduction to Virology I: Viral Structure and Function I.

Background/Discovery The concept behind modern virology can be traced back to Adolf Mayer, Dimitri Ivanofsky and Martinus Beijerinck who, independently in the late ’s, discovered what was later to be called tobacco mosaic virus File Size: 68KB.

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Further, the book includes perspectives on basic aspects of virology, including the structure of viruses, the organization of their genomes, and basic strategies in replication and expression, emphasizing the diversity and versatility of viruses, how they cause disease and how their hosts react to such disease, and exploring developments in the field of host-microbe interactions in recent years.

The capsid and entire virus structure can be mechanically (physically) probed through atomic force microscopy. viruses are much smaller than bacteria.

Most viruses that have been studied have a diameter between 20 and nanometers. Some filoviruses have a total length of up to nm; their diameters are only about 80 nm.

The virion capsid has three functions: (1) to protect the viral nucleic acid from digestion by certain enzymes, (2) to furnish sites on its surface that recognize and attach (adsorb) the virion to receptors on the surface of the host cell, and, in some viruses, (3) to provide proteins that form The structure and function of viruses book of a specialized component that enables the virion to penetrate through the cell surface membrane or, in.

Like all viruses, the Hepatitis A virus is simple, made up of only nucleic acid and proteins, but it is still able to take over normal cell functions and convert them to make more viruses.

Function of Hepatitis B Virus. The virus itself is extremely tiny and can get into areas that other viruses cannot infect.

It likes to attack the liver of the host, specifically going after. Fluid Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure and Function.

Cell Cycle: Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis. Viruses are small nucleic acid units, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protective protein coat, or capsid, making them little more than packaged genes.

Some viruses, such as influenza (flu), have a cloaking protein envelope, making it easier to penetrate a host cell. Structure-Function Relationships of Human Pathogenic Viruses provides information on the mechanisms by which viruses enter the cell, replicate, package their DNA into capsids and mature into new virions.

The relation between structural features and the pathogenicity and oncogenicity of some of the most relevant human viral pathogens are demonstrated and the acquisition of defense.

Structure and Function Viruses are small obligate intracellular parasites, which by definition contain either a RNA or DNA genome surrounded by a protective, virus-coded prot ein coat. Viruses may. 1 Chapter 6 - Virology • Topics –Structure –Classification –Multiplication –Cultivation and replication –Nonviral infectious agent –Teratogenic/Oncogenic - Viruses have a host is, viruses infect specific cells or tissues of specific hosts, or specific bacteria, or specific plants.

The component(s) of a virus that is/are extended from the envelope for attachment is/are the: capsomeres spikes nucleic a Structure and Function of DNA; Structure and Function of RNA; Structure and Function of Want to cite, share, or modify this book.

Description The structure and function of viruses EPUB

This book is Creative Commons Attribution License and you must. The smallest viruses are about μm (20 nanometers), while the large viruses measure about μm ( nanometers). Smallpox viruses are among the largest viruses; polio viruses are among the smallest.

Viral structure. Certain viruses contain ribonucleic acid (RNA), while other viruses have deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). • The structure of the bluetongue virus core was recently reported & represents the largest structure yet determined to atomic resolution ( Å). • The outer shell of this virus is approximately 80 nm in diameter & the inner shell (core) about 60 nm.

• The double-stranded RNA genome of the virus is packed. Hepatitis viruses have been the subject of intense study in the last twenty years, with a wealth of information related to their lifecycle, structure, functions and inhibition being presented. This book compiles the most important developments and research, giving users a very useful guide on this evolving area of virology and medicinal chemistry.

Once again, here was a case of the conservation of structure that served a specific function over at least a billion years.

It was the same amazing result as I had experienced with the discovery of the haemoglobin structure, the structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of dehydrogenases and now the structure of some RNA icosahedral : Michael G Rossmann.

Virus structure and classification A major branch of virology is virus classification. Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect: animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages (viruses infecting bacteria, which include the most complex viruses).

Lassa virus is a linear, bisegmented, single-stranded RNA virus, which belong to the Arenaviridae family that causes viral hemorrhagic fever transmitted by rats. The virus is endemic in West African countries, which may be due to its zoonotic nature.

Lassa virus infection occurs through contact with the vector Mastomys natalensis or infected humans and can lead to wide symptoms from a mild.

Figure Viruses can be complex in shape or relatively simple. This figure shows three relatively complex virions: the bacteriophage T4, with its DNA-containing head group and tail fibers that attach to host cells; adenovirus, which uses spikes from its capsid to bind to the host cells; and HIV, which uses glycoproteins embedded in its envelope to do : Charles Molnar, Jane Gair, Molnar, Charles, Gair, Jane.

Structure: membranous (lipids, proteins, glycoproteins) envelope surrounding capsid, comes from host cell - glycoprotein projections- can be specialised to interact with specific receptors on target host cell- help the virus to target specific tissues eg. epithelial tissues Function: protects virus during transmission from one host to another.

Size. Viruses are usually much smaller than bacteria with the vast majority being submicroscopic. While most viruses range in size from 5 to nanometers (nm), in recent years a number of giant viruses, including Mimiviruses and Pandoraviruses with a diameter of micrometers (µm), have been identified.

Characteristics of structure and function exhibited by Eucaryotic as compared to Procaryotic cells. Large viruses (pox) (note how these overlap the smallest bacteria in size) x nm Polio virus (a small virus) 25 nm (compare to) egg albumin molecule x 10 nm.

The NS5 structure has striking similarities to the NS5 protein of the related Japanese encephalitis virus. The methyltransferase contains in-line pockets for substrate binding and the active site.

Key residues in the polymerase are located in similar positions to those of the initiation complex for the hepatitis C virus. Structure and Function. The infective form of virus, the virion, which exists outside the host organism, consists of a genetic material (DNA/RNA) and an outer protective layer called capsid, collectively known as nucleocapsid.

In addition, many viruses are covered by a lipid bilayer envelope originating from both the host and the virus. Lecture 2: Virus Structure All viruses contain the following two components: 1) a nucleic acid genome and 2) a protein capsid that covers the genome.

Together this is called the addition, many animal viruses contain a 3) lipid entire intact virus is called the structure and composition of these components can vary widely. The coronavirus spike protein is a multifunctional molecular machine that mediates coronavirus entry into host cells. It first binds to a receptor on the host cell surface through its S1 subunit and then fuses viral and host membranes through its S2 subunit.

Two domains in S1 from different coronaviruses recognize a variety of host receptors, leading to viral attachment. The spike protein. Questions pertaining to virus structure and reproductive cycle If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains * and * are unblocked. Despite similarities in sequence and structure between the spikes of the two viruses, three different antibodies against the SARS virus could not successfully bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

This suggests that potential vaccine and antibody-based treatment strategies will need to be unique to the new virus. Capsids are broadly classified according to their structure.

The majority of the viruses have capsids with either helical or icosahedral structure. Some viruses, such as bacteriophages, have developed more complicated structures due to constraints of elasticity and electrostatics.

The icosahedral shape, which has 20 equilateral triangular faces, approximates a sphere, while the helical shape.• The structure of the bluetongue virus core was recently reported & represents the largest structure yet determined to atomic resolution ( Å).

• The outer shell of this virus is approximately 80 nm in diameter & the inner shell (core) about 60 nm. • The double-stranded RNA genome of the virus is packed.The structure of a virus and how it infects a cell.

What a virus is. The structure of a virus and how it infects a cell. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains * and * are unblocked.